Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Variety of New Humankind

Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius


Aripin Tambunan


Had you thought the existence of variety of humankind in this earth? The variety of humankind has a nature that completely different from its original nature. This variety is a result of an evolution that come from the tradition human to become the Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius. This process have been not completed in perfect up today, although it have been started from the early of modern century up today. There will be need a more dozen years to reach its perfection. This process will be perfected. When the systems, which is applying in society up today, continually directed to ward the values or truths that they are contained in empiricism, nihilism, positivism and pragmatism and they are maintained continuously. Thus these systems have an important role to accelerate the evolution process occur.

The birth of this Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius was a consequent as the church refused the knowledge’s in 16-17 centuries, In that time, the church with all its inquisitions can made the violence against whoever that they tried to change the dogma that church held it. That is why, Giordano Bruno must be burnt as a result of his opinion, Galileo must be imprisoned, because his opinion about heliocentric against the church dogma about geocentric. Thomas Hobbes, he has to leave out from England for many years, and Spinoza was made in removedness and even he had been threw with stones.[1]

Because, the church has a such condition in that time, the scholars have began to have a sceptic. Dogma did not held strictly, but the knowledge’s is begun to develop and the church did not able to control them. Descartes stated that anything must be questionable, Thomas Hobbes, john Lock, and David Hume Stood on their empiricism school, and August Comte and J.S. Mill Stood on their positivism school. So where church is? Religion became undeveloped, it has not been made in an exercise, while the knowledge’s are developing continuously, as a result humankind grow toward the excessive knowledge’s domination.

In his book, the Origin of Species, Darwin pointed out that the change in habit or common produce the heritage results.[2] Today, generally in city public has been occurred the change in habit that it began on 17-18th centuries. The change can be seen with beginning from habits in moral values order, society structures, kinship systems, and religion, that they are substituted by some isms that they come from modern education, such as empiricism, nihilism positivism, and pragmatism. To follow his theory of Darwin, there will be exist the heritage results. The heritage results are the variety of new humankind emerged, that is Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius or the genius human but in “fasik”, “Fasik” word must be meant the inner attitude that it will not want to comply to the God or in Greek World it called as “asebeo”.

What is the picture of this new variety? Have they spread to entire the world? Have they able to survive in this world, if there is applied the theory of nature selection? And the last question is, would they eliminate the human as the source from there they divide, or they will place

It in museum as the show for their offspring? And there will be written, “This is our the first variety, they are weak because they have the conscience, they are foolish because they have the religiosity tenets, and we are the super humankind variety, Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius.

Features of the New Variety

Features of this New variety, will be reviewed from some things that they experienced the change in human it self, that will remove toward the perfectness that is:

They have no conscience

When the human is created certainly the human have the conscience, this conscience, of course, functions to provide an enlighten so the human can understand which is good or which is a bad. In Arabic word, “nur”, has a meaning as a light, so the conscience is meant that the conscience has a light so the human that can distinguish directly which is a good and which is bad. Word conscience, really come from Latin word that is “concencia”, that follow to English word become, conscience, that means to understand together. It’s meaning that conscience in that human also know that the human do. Because the conscience functions to provide an enlighten, when the human did a bad, the conscience will say to express its objections for the human acted.

In this the new variety, they have no more the conscience. They regard that the conscience make the human to be weak, reluct to act, and it will constraint the progress of the human civilization, both in technology and moral. That is why they make an effort to kill the conscience in the way of rational instrumental.

Rational Instrumental

This the New Variety use the rational instrumental as a tool to kill the conscience. In order their conscience do not to give a warning when the human will do a bad, so the human will make a reason with rational. This rational reasons can stop the conscience to warn, so it make a valid for the actions that they opposed against the conscience.

These behaviours can be seen by us in the society. For example, a marriage in contract, this marriage in contract will be validated with its rational reasons “rather than helpless and poor,” it is better the marriage in contract because some one will provide a home and money. In view of the rational instrumental this is right, but what it is in view of the conscience? Who is the human that want to become as a thing or goods production. Or the parent’s conscience whoever that admit their daughter life with a marriage in contract?


This new variety stood on empiricism. For them, the knowledge come from the sensory perception. Its mean, the experience is a source of the knowledge. Because such ism, they can not receive the idea about the God. Cause the God can not be catch in the human sensory experience. It made them that they have no the God or they have no faith to the God. That is why all anything that they do, they can not be related to the God. Whatever they are ethic, moral, aesthetic, epistemology, and the work, all of them must be measured on the based of the increasing the high of freedom for them as the New variety.

There is an anecdote about this, a professor said to his students, The God is no exist. To support his statement, he asked to his students, who had touched the God? No one from his students raised up his or her hand. Then he follow up, who had seen the God? Nobody from his students rise up his or her hand. So its conclusion, the God is not exist. But, suddenly a student said, professor can I ask. The student stand up and he said to his classmates, who had touched the brain of the professor? No body rise up her or his hand. So he continued, who had seen the brain of the professor? Nobody rise up his or her hand. And then, he said; its conclusion the professor has no the brain, because it cannot be sensory (touched and seen).


Georgias in Woodruff and long, AA; said, it is nothing, even if it were something, it would be unknowable, even if it were knowable, it could not be made evident to others.[3] This statement said nothing for anything, because nothing can be known by human in good. Because nothing, refused the existence of the normative certainty. Similar to the idea by Schopenhauer, that there were a value that has a strength basic. Cause each value is depend on the agreement, place, and ism that underlying these values. Even the positivists pointed out that the value is an irrational.

So they walk on nothing, both value or knowledge in certainty. Even they have no know for what they are life. They are exist because the process of natural that is removing to ward the nihilist. As a results, they are life like a robot that programmed by modern education.

Religionsity of Knowledge

Although they have no believe to the God, they have no the conscience as the place to grow the religion, it is not meant that they are not religious, but the place not in hearth but in brain. Although they are not believe to the God. It is not meant, that they have no the God; their God is the knowledge.

Their religion is the belief to the knowledge that it can made them in welfare when they are still life in this world. There is no tomorrow day, there is no a resurrection for the dead man. According to them, eve know the life only the life in this world. Other world, it cannot be understood, because it cannot be understood in empirically. So the phrase that they used is the Hegel’s phrase, that is that real is that fact, that fact is that real. Its meant, if something cannot be sensed, it is not real; it is an illusion only or “fatamorgana”. In other word the resurrection for the dead man is an illusion or “fatamorgana” only.

Religion of knowledge has no need the religiousness rituals. Because there is no someone a person that must be praised, respected or scared. Religion of knowledge is a religion that maximised all capability of brain to reach worldly welfare. That is why, the religion of knowledge used the measures to state that someone is a religious how his or her genius, and how the welfare his or her life; that is their religiosity.

Ritual in the religion of the knowledge consist of a nature songs, the prayed through the formula of math, physic science, chemistry, and economy, that they can answered their live needs. There is no liturgical specifically as it can be seen in a ritual of religion is conducting. So their ritual, it is not such as a tradition religion ritual because it can restricted their freedom in thinking, in acting, and in behaviour. Only a standard for them in acting in thinking, and in behaving is a freedom that is not make a loss for the other (libertinism).


Act first think later, this word is most proper to describe the pragmatism. To make a concept/theory on an act so that the act is not improver, it is not applicable for pragmatism. Why? Because there is a rational instrumental would be used as a justification tool and simultaneously as killing tool for the conscience if it is saying. They have changed the pattern of theoretical thinking into practical. That is why the value of an act/behaviour would be measured on the based of efficiency this an act/behaviour. If something has an effective, although it made a violent on the traditional values and damaged, it can be justified to conduct. Effectiveness is a measure tool in everything, anything would be admitted provided that have an effective for human.

This pragmatism life style became the regulator for movement the act of the New variety. For example, a man, needs a sex, he is not required to married. I a can satisfied his desire with whoever women that he wanted, that the women could be paid. Practical, is it! Because their philosophy is, if you want to cat beef, you no needs to raise up the cattle, so many beef sold in the market. What for the life impose with a responsibility with children and wife. Responsibility is a thing uncomfortable for them. The life in practical only is enough. Because the life itself is difficult, what for it make more difficult. Enjoy the life, practical is not it!


Worldly view that mechanistic in way of Cartesian – Newtonian has fertilized, in part, the developing of the New variety. Hat is why they are most active to conduct the research in order to advance the scientific theories that it is a parted from the faith to the God. The freedom such that to make them in more free to explored the nature. They became the men with creativity in thinking, they have intelligence to answer the problems that emerged about human and universe. Simultaneously genius to kill the conscience with method of rational instrumental, if there is the objections by the conscience as a results of the scientific approaches are opposed to the conscience.

Their genius would develop continuously along with the development of science, it is coursed that they have no allergic on the knowledge. Even they praise the knowledge as the God. Their genius is more complete with the quantum theory or quantum mechanic emerged that they are formulated by Albert Einstein and colleagues in the 20th century. The formulation have bring the change out on concepts, space, time, material, and object fundamentally.

Structure of its Society

Society structure of this New Humankind also would follow to change, they would make a relationship in a community that it can be called as a “social contract”. Kinship and religion are not more need. Society norms are not more established with the based on the kinship and religion. But it would be structured with the based on enjoyment/gain materiality that now humankind can be enjoyed.

Family is not more a main priority, the consumerism life style and modern hedonism have removed it. It made the relationship between the parents and children become the “investment” relationship. Because the relationship model is an investment, so it is not seldom that the child is sacrificed for the interest of the investor. The sacrifice could be seen from communication, warmth of relation, to the parents sell a child or to be a victim. The parents consider the child as “a capital or an investment”, if it is need, and then it is ready to exchange for money.

When the families, which is a smallest structure in the society, have changed as such, so what would be happen with the society? The society would change, to see all anything with the eyes glass of money/capital. All anything would be measured in the based on money values, thereafter in the society of new humankind there is no more a solidarity, social work, and a social relations. The social relations would be ruined, they would be substituted by individualism and the wild wood law reapplied, “who has a power, he/she is the winner”.

Its Economic

They used the capitalism economic system, why capitalism? Because the capitalism is suitable to the new civilization for the New variety. Why? Because one of powers in the capitalism is to search the profit, regardless the traditional values. The attitude of capitalists struggle to reach the profit, they removed all constraints that they come from the humanity senses because they weaken the efforts to reach the profit. That is why, the labours are became the production – cools, according to Marx in Frederick Engels, the labours must struggle as a human being who have an other activity beside work, sleeping and eating.[4]

In the society of New variety, such that economic systems that must be used. If not, they are not more the super humankind, Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius. Cause they have to posses the strong economy, if they want to substitute the first variety of humankind, that is traditional humankind. With their economic power, they would able to change the world order in conformance with their isms.

Systems of capitalists economic have dominated the Western, and it extended to Asia. In Indonesia, in simpler forms, they could be seen on the people who open the boarding houses, they are not thinking the moral aspects. A man or woman, who live in the boarding house, can bring his or her girl or boy friend or darling to the boarding house without the owner of boarding house questioned. Because the important for the owner of boarding house is the profit that they would receive from the boarding house.

Education as a processing kitchen

A theologies whose name is Gresham Machen pointed out, if the world is a restaurant in which served a various of menu – ideas of philosophy with majority oppose the God, and then the university become its kitchen. Lecture rooms become a place in which the world view is cocked up to mature. From this opinion it could be understood that the education in universities are a processing kitchen in which is produced this the New variety so that they have a world view such as they have above.

Education approach, it is existing today in the universities, have changed significantly, as it before still referred to doctrine or authority of religion in approach to develop the knowledge, change toward the approach with based on an empirical knowledge only or more proper the positive knowledge with reference to the freedom of thinking. A know ledge can not receive the existence of metaphysic knowledge and is not restricted by the religion values.

Why the approach with reference to the religion doctrine/authority was left? Because there is unsatisfied on the behaviour of that doctrine it self which cannot be questioned, improved, or refused so that it opposed on the knowledge nature which always emerge a new knowledge and new meaning about the life. And that’s right the doctrine has nature as such, as Edgar Morin pointed out that doctrines are the closed theories with absolutely believe for its truth and immune for all criticism that show its fallacy.[5]

Education, that referred to the freedom of thinking that the universities have held today, really has begun to develop since the Era of Enlighten. The Era of Enlighten is the era in which the knowledge began to have the praised, and authority/doctrine of religion began to leave. Honorific on this knowledge can be seen in the book of Darwin, The Descent of Man. A book have gave a new understanding, that the human is not created by the God, but it is a result of evolution from the ape. From the result of this comprehension, the values of holy inspiration from the Holy Scripture begun to leave and substituted by the positive knowledge values. And this positive values, that was developed by the universities, that only can improve the ability of ratio but to make dull the faith. As a result of such education system, there is emerged the new humankind generation that want to place in higher the humankind. This movement was given a name as humanism that is sponsored by Auguste Comte (1798-1857). Because the human is placed too highly, the God, as the crater of the humankind, is not need to place in more highly. Even idea about the God also has been eliminated from their thought.

To place in higher the humankind and the empirics knowledge, that later it was held in the universities, have triggered the birth of the new postulates in humankind life. These new postulates would be absorbed by the students and was brought out to a large public. Its impact, the civilization of traditional humankind crashed to the civilization of the new humankind variety, that is Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius. It included value systems, moral, religious, economy, up to the kinship relation-civilization crash could be seen clearly in Europe on 1800, the values of religion that the West Europe traditional society held them have opposed by the new values, that is rationality that the new variety held them.[6] All anything must be measured on the based of ratio, and not more on authority of the church/religion.

Its impact, the West Europe, in a part, the society are no more missing to enter to the church, if there is the men to go to pray in the church; they were the oldest men and if there is the younger they are most smallest. So it can be said that the West Europe, the place for the birth of this the new variety and guided them up to adolescent with some ism such as empiricism, nihilism and positivism. And then they grow up to adult by America with its pragmatism that enter to all world fundamentals have drive/accelerate the propagation of the new variety of humankind.

What was happening in the West Europe in 1800, today it can be sensed in all the world, Indonesia also followed to feel it. Indonesian structure have change, kinship relations, values of the religious and traditional have been left in most part of city community have been invar attacked by a new value, that is a rationality instrumental value.

That right today this new variety have been discovered in many, but their manifestation still be refused by the humankind that they held strictly the tradition and religious values. When this traditional humankind began to become small or continually decreasing, the manifestation of this new variety will more stronger to be felt in the society. More ever, if they will hold the power, the order of values or norms of the sociality will change significantly.


Homo Ingenium Praeter Impius is the humankind with genius but ambivalent, that have the features the man who are produced by the modern education, because they are formed in the universities with emplacing the positive knowledge ala positivism. Their society structure was built on based of money value (material), therefore in the society of the new humankind, no more again, solidarity, social work, and social relations. These social relation were substituted by the individualism and wild wood law.

Religiosity is a knowledge religiosity, and their religion is knowledge religion. God is the knowledge. Therefore, they could not receive the God which came through holy inspiration as a traditional religion. Their liturgical contained the nature songs, pray through mathematic formulas, physic, chemistry, and economy, which can answer their life needs. And their economic used the capitalism that multiplied the capital without account for the impact and privacy right of the labours.

[1] See, Hector Hawton, Filsafat yang Menghibur, Yogyakarta: Ikon, 2003 pages 35-47. although the government imposed the restriction on Thomas Hobbes and Leibniz, but the government was controlled by the church

[2] See, in part of variation rule by charles Darwin (Translate by Translation center University of Indonesia). The Origin of Species, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2007), 125-128

[3] Woodruff & Long, A.A., Early Greek Phiosophy, (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999), 305.

[4] Frederick Engels (Terj. Oey Hay Djoen), Tentang Kapital Marx, (Bandung: Ultimus dan Yayasan AKATIGA, 2006), 16.

[5] Edgar Morin, Tujuh materi Penting Bagi Dunia Pendidikan, (Yogyakarta Kanisius, 2005). He wrote it when he was asked by UNESCO in order to write his idea about he education in the future. He proposed seven important material about the education in the future, and one of them is detected the fallacy and illusion. And in one of the fallacies and illusions within the education world is the intellectual fallacy which included theory, doctrine and ideology.

[6] Daniel L. Pals, Dekonstruksi Kebenaran, (Yogyakarta: IRCiSoD, 2003), hlm. 129-168.